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Commentary by Howard Phillips, Chairman of The Conservative Caucus


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Home | December 2007 Archives


The Conservative Caucus and the Coalition to Block the North American Union: News Conference in Ottawa Canada, August 20, 2007
The Conservative Caucus, a founding member of the Coalition to Block the North American Union held a very successful news conference in Ottawa, Canada during the NAU/SPP summit with Presidents Bush and Calderon and Prime Minister Harper.
News Release - Statements: Howard Phillips, Connie Fogal, John McManus, Tom DeWeese, Bob Park, Pat Boone, Rep. Virgil Goode, Rep. Ron Paul, Rep. Walter JonesPhotos: Howard Phillips, Jerome Corsi, Connie Fogal, John McManus, Tom Deweese, Bob Park, Montebello Sign. Media: Interview availability, contact Charles Orndorff 703-938-9626

Interviews, coverage, and news conference attendees include: CTV TV News (video) or 2nd stream,, Fox News (Watch Video), Reuters, Canadian National Newspaper & 2nd story & 3rd story, CJSS Radio, KGMI Radio, Alex Jones, KZYX Radio, KSTX Radio (MP3), CFRA News Radio (MP3), Philadelphia Bulletin, Crosswalk, Canadian Press, CJAD Radio, BBS Radio, Global Outlook Magazine, Radio 940, Ottawa Sun (story also printed in other Sun papers), Q-104 Radio, The Canadian, National Post, Toronto Street News, Canadian Christianity, WPTF Radio, WorldNetDaily, & More & More, Washington Times, CNS News (with video), Globe and Mail, La Presse (in French) & (translation), Ocala Star Banner (letter), Digg, Barrie Examiner, Peterboro Examiner & 2nd story, Canada Free Press, Exchange Magazine, Wall Street Journal Let us know if you take action.

 Law of the Sea Treaty | December 31, 2007 | Digg This

Former Senator Allen Abandons His Former Position

When George Allen was a U.S. Senator from Virginia, he was one of the Republican members of the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations who voted unanimously in support of the United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty (UNLOST).

Apparently, former Senator Allen now recognizes the importance of reconnecting with his former conservative base, he having written a powerful article for The Washington Times (12/21/07) in which he condemns the very same treaty which he had previously supported.

Here are some of his comments: "We must protect United States sovereignty. We must not blissfully give control of 2/3 of the earth's surface to an unelected, unaccountable, unrepresentative, burdensome, taxing, regulating and adjudicating global bureaucracy. I am referencing the negotiations of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea or the Law of the Sea Treaty (LOST). President Ronald Reagan rejected the efforts to create an international authority that would ultimately control the world's sea beds.

"LOST is back. Twenty-five years later, LOST is demanding our attention again. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee recently approved a revised version of the treaty and recommended it to the full Senate for ratification. With the support of the Bush administration, this treaty was recently passed through the Committee without adequate hearing from opponents. Opponents are now being heard, and Mr. Reagan's reasons for objecting to LOST are still very much at issue.

"In rejecting LOST, Mr. Reagan saw the underlying dangers of the United States ceding its own authority and interests as a maritime power to an unaccountable international organization. Like its godfather, the United Nations, it would be controlled by countries which may have no maritime power and are often opposed to American interests. In 1994, the Clinton administration led efforts to revive LOST by making changes to the most objectionable parts of the treaty, and President Clinton signed it. But the 1994 amendments did not resolve many of the problems cited by Reagan and, in fact, there is a serious legal question as to whether the amendments actually altered the original treaty.

"LOST creates an international regulatory structure that bears many of the hallmarks of a nascent global government, including the power to tax, regulate business interests and the environment, and exercise judicial authority.

"Taxation. The International Seabed Authority (ISA) created by LOST has the authority to grant or deny permits for deep seabed mining, after exacting fees just to apply for permits and to collect part of the profits of such mining for redistribution to developing countries and ‘national liberation movements.’

"Economic Regulation. One of the ISA's stated purposes is to ‘protect land-based mineral producers in the third world from adverse economic effects of seabed production.’ Given the ISA's authority to grant or deny permits and to redistribute profits, this sounds an awful lot like the kind of cartel-style price-fixing and central planning that have proved disastrous in other economic sectors.

"Technology Transfer. LOST requires all state parties to the treaty to ‘cooperate in promoting the transfer of technology and scientific knowledge’ regarding deep sea mining. This mandate has already been used by China to obtain sonar technology from American companies in the 1990s when the Clinton administration said that the United States should abide by the technology-transfer requirements of LOST, even though the Senate had not ratified it.

"Judicial Authority. We have already seen the extension of environmental regulation playing out in the judicial branch created by LOST, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. Ireland has brought a case there seeking to halt opening of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant on land in Great Britain on the claim that it would raise water temperatures in Irish waters and pose a hazard to marine life. One can easily imagine the plethora of lawsuits that could be brought by states and international groups seeking economic advantage or to stymie U.S. interests.

"An overarching danger of LOST is the precedent it would create: the concession of authority for governmental functions to an international organization over which the United States has little or no control. It would also give credence to an outmoded and failed redistributionist economic scheme where the people of those nations who innovate and invest are forced to relinquish revenue and technology to nations standing on the sidelines. To ratify this treaty would diminish the sovereignty of the United States and would enhance the authority of a remote, unaccountable supranational government over the seas and seabed.

"The original purpose of LOST was to codify the laws of navigation and freedom of the seas. If it had stuck to its goals, instead of trying to break new ground in global governance and wealth redistribution, LOST would have been ratified years ago. U.S. maritime interests are currently functioning under the customs of international law and should continue to do so until we are ready to lead an effort to throw out LOST and start over. As Ronald Reagan said, ‘We have the means at our disposal to protect our oceans interests and we shall protect those interests if a comprehensive treaty eludes us.’"

 Tom Tancredo | December 27, 2007 | Digg This

Thank You, Tom Tancredo

As Tom Tancredo departs the Presidential campaign, he merits the thanks of American patriots for his ongoing, effective efforts to bring the issue of illegal immigration to the top of the political agenda.

Thank you, Tom, for your good work.

 Thank God at Christmas | December 22, 2007 | Digg This


Merry Christmas

At Christmas time, I thank God for all of our blessings and wish the same to you.

I pray that 2008 will be a great year for each of us.

Howard Phillips
The Conservative Caucus

 Free Speech | December 21, 2007 | Digg This


As President of the Harvard Student Council in 1960, I was called upon to decide whether Communist folk singer, Pete Seeger, would be allowed to appear on our Cambridge campus. To underscore my belief in free speech and academic freedom, I permitted Seeger to appear, despite my comprehensive opposition to his views.

Dr. David Noebel of The Christian Anti-Communism Crusade makes clear that Seeger is no friend of American patriotism: "Mr. Seeger has been very busy over the past two decades performing for Communists, pro-Communists, and left-wing organizations and causes. Life magazine described him as ‘A Minstrel with a Mission,’ but failed to inform its readers of his long-range mission. Seeger’s songs, books, and articles in Sing Out! Magazine would seem to clearly define his stand in the struggle between Communism and Freedom—the struggle which George Meany, President of the AFL-CIO, says is ‘the problem of our time…overshadowing all other problems.’ In Seeger’s book, American Favorite Ballads, we are told point blank ‘Workingmen of all tongues unite—you have NOTHING TO LOSE but your chains—you have a world to win. Vive La Revolution Sociale.’

"Marx said nearly the same thing in the closing lines of the Communist Manifesto.

"Through the pages of Sing Out!, Seeger and his associates have consistently defended the Spanish Communists of the Lincoln Brigade as well as the Communist takeover of Cuba. They continuously derogate the House Committee on Un-American Activities (now the House Committee on Internal Security), going so far as to call Herbert A. Philbrick and Louis Budenz ‘stool pigeons.’…

"Yet one of the most amazing psychological miracles of our times is the ability of Pete Seeger to maintain a sense of quasi-respectability. Alger Hiss, Owen Lattimore and a whole host of other traitors were never able to maintain such an aura. Who but Seeger could entertain on Sesame Street, the Dinah Shore Program, the Johnny Cash Show and at the same time recommend Gus Hall’s work Ecology: Can We Survive Under Capitalism? In fact, the Communist Daily World for February 19, 1972, quoted Seeger as saying, ‘If you think you’ve already heard from the biologists and the lawyers, you better be prepared to hear also from the Marxists. A good place to start would be Ecology: Can We Survive under Capitalism? By Gus Hall, leader of the U.S. Communist Party.’…

"[I]n 1970, Guideposts, edited by Norman Vincent Peale, not only ran a complimentary article on Seeger (is now a conservationist—just like Alger Hiss was once described as a bird watcher), but made reprints available to church groups, clubs, friends and relatives. To label Seeger a conservationist is as misleading as labeling Hiss ‘a State Department employee.’…

"Giving him a Kennedy Center Honor a decade or so back, President Clinton hailed ol’ Pete as ‘an inconvenient artist who dared to sing things as he saw them’ which is one way of putting it. You can’t help noticing, though, that it’s all the documentaries and honors ceremonies and lifetime-achievement tributes to Mr. Seeger that seem to find certain things ‘inconvenient.’"

At the same time I allowed Pete Seeger to sing on campus, I was cooperating with Herb Philbrick (made famous in the television show, "I Led Three Lives").

 Please Help Support TCC | December 20, 2007 | Digg This

As I prepare TCC’s legislative strategy for the new year, I would like to ask for your help to support our top priorities with your most generous possible financial gift.

1.   Oppose President Bush’s scheme to merge the United States into a North American Union (NAU) with Mexico and Canada. 

2.   Block the United Nations Law of the Sea Treaty (UNLOST). 

3.   Fight Bush administration efforts to make illegal aliens who have returned to Mexico eligible for U.S. Social Security benefits — and oppose amnesty. 

4.   Rebuild the U.S. Navy and challenge growing Red Chinese influence in Panama and elsewhere. 

5. &sp; Oppose the unconstitutional usurpations of the federal judiciary re eminent domain, euthanasia, the death penalty, sodomy, quotas, abortion, and other issues. 

6.   Continue TCC’s weekly broadcast of Conservative Roundtable, now showing in more than 100 communities nationwide. 

7.   Secure passage of the Constitution Restoration Act (CRA) to end judicial tyranny. 

8.      Much more. 

We share a great love for our beloved nation and the blessings it has provided. Let’s resolve to restore America to greatness. Your donation will enable TCC to fight for our Constitution and accomplish our goals, and I will be grateful for your support. 

With personal best wishes, I am 


Howard Phillips

Donate at our secure online page or print a donation form to mail with your check.
 John Grienier | December 12, 2007 | Digg This


John Grenier, former Deputy National Chairman of the Republican National Committee during the Goldwater campaign, was my good friend. I mourn his loss.

"Birmingham lawyer John Grenier, considered by many the founding father of the modern-day Alabama Republican Party, has died. Mr. Grenier, 77, died at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center on [November 6].

" ‘I think it is true to say that John was certainly among the founding fathers, if not the founding father, of the Republican Party we see in Alabama today,’ said former U.S. Rep. Jack Edwards of Mobile.

"In 1964, Edwards was one of five Republicans who won election to Congress from Alabama while riding GOP presidential nominee Barry Goldwater’s coattails. Those victories ended decades of Alabama’s sending only Democrats to Washington. …

"Alabama Republican Party Chairman Mike Hubbard praised Mr. Grenier, who also once served as the state’s GOP chairman and as chief of staff to former Gov. Guy Hunt. …

"Mr. Grenier grew up in New Orleans and had undergraduate and law degrees from Tulane University. He served as a Marine fighter pilot in Korea before moving to Birmingham.

"In 1960, his political activism began when he organized a local rally for GOP presidential candidate Richard Nixon, his son, John B. ‘Beau’ Grenier, said.

"In 1961, he became chairman of the Young Republicans in Alabama and the following year was elected state GOP chairman. …

"Mr. Grenier served as deputy national chairman of the Republican national Committee in 1964 and was the Republican nominee against Democratic U.S. Sen. John Sparkman in 1966. He lost, but fared better than most previous Republicans had in what was then a heavily Democratic state." Source: Charles Dean and Tom Gordon, The Birmingham News (, 11/8/07

 After Church | December 11, 2007 | Digg This

After church on November 18, I journeyed to a part of the District of Columbia which I had not before visited and had the privilege of being in a sold-out audience to hear five cabaret singers performing songs written by Noel Coward and Cole Porter. The event was organized by Carol Hubner, wife of Sven Kraemer. Sven, with whom I had a productive conversation, served on Ronald Reagan’s National Security Council staff and now teaches at the Institute of World Politics. Among those in the audience was former World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz.

 Human Rights: Creator's vs. U.N.'s | December 10, 2007 | Digg This


On October 23, 2007, George W. Bush issued his 2007 United Nations Day Proclamation, asserting that "The document adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, stands as a landmark achievement in the history of human liberty".

He went on to say that "With renewed commitment and courage, we can pursue the vision of the Universal Declaration".

Sadly, the U.N. declaration stands in stark contrast with the United States Declaration of Independence. Our Declaration, the one to which President Bush ought to be committed, asserts that we are endowed by our Creator with certain unalienable rights.

There is no mention of the Creator in the U.N. declaration, which suggests implicitly that whatever rights we enjoy, those rights are granted to us by political authorities.

Shame on you President Bush. In seeking popularity from those who reject the foundations of American liberty, you have betrayed those foundations and put your responsibilities in the closet.

 Legislative Strategy Meeting | December 6, 2007 | Digg This

I spent 90 minutes with Phyllis Schlafly, Kent Snyder, and Lou Moore at the Hotel Mayflower on November 16, where Phyllis is scheduled to address the Federalist Society.  Kent is the Chairman of the Ron Paul for President campaign and Lou Moore is the Campaign Manager.  In addition to discussing Presidential politics, we also focused on ways of expanding awareness of and support for two key measures promoted by Congressman Paul, including the “We the People Act” and the “War Powers Act” which he has co-sponsored with our friend, Walter Jones of North Carolina.

 Earl Dodge | December 5, 2007 | Digg This


My friend, Earl Dodge, six-time Presidential nominee of the Prohibition Party died on November 7 at age 74.

Earl was a solid conservative who was very helpful to me in my campaigns for President.

 Battling the Left at OEO | December 3, 2007 | Digg This


At the end of January, 1973, I was named Director of the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO).

My appointment had been delayed for months because of attacks on me by those who opposed my determination to close down the programs of the "Great Society", which operated under the jurisdiction of OEO.

I had campaigned to get the job as Director and had the promise that President Richard Nixon would veto further funding for the agency before the end of its fiscal year at midnight on June 30, even if it meant vetoing a "continuing resolution".

There were struggles within the Office of the President, with LBJ Democrat Paul O’Neill (who was running the Office of Management and Budget OMB) determined to prevent the veto and preserve the "Great Society" programs.

Nixon had resolved in September, 1972 to eliminate the agency and its programs, but O’Neill and his nefarious colleagues, including Frank Carlucci, Wes Hjornevik, Leonard Garment, and James Cavanaugh rejected the letter of Nixon’s decision, but claimed to honor the spirit of it, by splitting up the agency’s programs and shipping them all over the Government. This included creation of a Legal Services Corporation (LSC) and the transformation of the National Institute on Education to eventually become a Federal Department of Education. Other components included Community Action Agencies, the Office of Minority Business Enterprise (which went to HUD), migrant programs, Indian programs, and much more.

As Director of OEO, I had 2,000 so-called civil servants, many of them Left-wing activists locked into lifetime sinecures, who supposedly reported to me, one thousand of them based at our national headquarters at 1900 M Street, N.W. in Washington, D.C., and another 1,000 spread among ten OEO regional offices. However, the real power resided in some 500,000 employees of 10,000 OEO-funded non-profit corporations which had been authorized to lobby, litigate, organize, propagandize, and proselytize for their preferred neo-Marxist views.

I was a target for every Left-wing journalist in America, and my adversaries were drooling when I was scheduled to testify before the House Education and Labor Committee to defend my administration and my agenda. The Chairman of the Education and Labor Committee was Augustus Hawkins, a Congressman from California, who had organized the Congressional Black Caucus and who, years before, had been a member of the Communist Party of the United States.

The hearing room in which I testified was jam-packed with prominent Left-wingers from the media and the private sector, ranging from Ralph Nader to Daniel Schorr. Although I was attacked by virtually every member of the Committee, as well as some non-members from the Black Caucus who came to the hearing in an attempt to stare me down, I had a very successful day.

One of the reasons things went fairly well was the intercession of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) Secretary Caspar Weinberger with his old friend, Gus Hawkins. Hawkins and Weinberger had both served in the California Assembly. In his younger days, Weinberger was a man of the Left, supporting San Francisco Mayor George Christopher against Ronald Reagan when the two ran for Governor in 1966 and favoring liberal GOP U.S. Senator Tom Kuchel against conservative hero Max Rafferty.

President Nixon ran his administration by appointing four "Super Secretaries" who each supervised several department heads. Weinberger was the Super Secretary to whom I reported.

Prior to the hearing, Weinberger told me of his friendship with Hawkins and said that, before the hearing was to begin I should approach Chairman Hawkins and tell him that his old friend, Cap Weinberger, would be grateful if he would extend to me every courtesy. I did that and Chairman Hawkins could not have been more gracious for the rest of the day.

As reported in the Washington Evening Star and Daily News (March 1 1973), "SARGE SHRIVER, the Kennedy in-law, had to pretend that the miniature vessels appropriated by the Congress back in 1964 were mighty battleships. He christened them with grand names like Community Action, Head Start, Upward Bound, Foster Grandparents and neighborhood Youth Corps. …

"Once a year Sarge had to take his toy shops out of the tub and cart them up to the Hill so that Congress would finance another annual voyage. …

"And now, in 1973, the OEO has a new ‘acting’ director, an Anti-Anti-Poverty Czar named Howie Phillips…The process is officially called dismantlement…rechristening the boats with names like Failure, Mismanagement, Waste and Political Advocacy.

"On Tuesday, Howie trudged up to the Hill to meet congressional tormentors. …

"ONE BY ONE OEO’s liberal friends rose to the poverty agency’s defense on Tuesday, flexing their flabby congressional muscles, giving Howie the evil eye like so many club-fighters trying to psych out an opponent before the bell. Howie polished them off, one by one. He was armed with information where they were filled with so much vague gas. Above all, he believed in the efficacy and rectitude of what he was doing, while they tried to sell ignorant flatulence as moral passion. …

"Mink of Hawaii waxed wrathful over the illegality of dismantling OEO. ‘Under what law are you operating?’ she demanded in grandstand tones. ‘Under the Economic Opportunity Act,’ said Howie. Clay of Missouri blew his time on what he imagined to be a clever disquisition on the career of Cato, that stern Roman moralist to whom Howie has allegedly likened himself. …

" ‘In 1961 you were a member of the Young Americans for Freedom. Was you paid by them?’ said Chisholm of New York. …

"For Howie, of course, it was a piece of cake. In the absence of precise and probing questions, he ambled on in his self-assured IBM vocabulary of disembowelment: utilization memo … effective mobilization … grantee … sign-off authority … obligated funds … defunded programs … spin-off … special revenue sharing … dismantlement.

"YOU COULD HEAR the water slurping down the drain. A very clever and articulate young man was sitting in the tub."

As reported in The Washington Times (11/14/07, p. B2), "Augustus Hawkins, California’s first black congressman who helped form the Congressional Black Caucus, died Nov. 10 at Suburban Hospital in Bethesda. He was 100.

"Mr. Hawkins, a Democrat represented South Los Angeles for more than half a century, first starting off in the state Legislature in 1935 and then getting elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1962.

"Black politicians called Mr. Hawkins an inspiration and mentor.

" ‘It was Gus Hawkins who gave us the credibility,’ said Rep. Diane Watson, California Democrats. ‘It was Gus Hawkins who gave us the ideas. … He has left a sterling legacy.’

"Rep. Maxine Waters, California Democrat who holds Mr. Hawkins’ former 35th District seat, called her predecessor ‘the author of some of the most significant legislation ever passed in the House…particularly in the areas of education and labor. He cared about poor and working people.’

"Mr. Hawkins sponsored the equal employment section of the landmark 1964 Civil Rights Act that created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. He helped create the Congressional Black Caucus in 1971.

"Mr. Hawkins also co-wrote the Humphrey-Hawkins Act of 1978 that was designed to reduce unemployment and inflation.

"After retiring in 1990, he stayed in the Washington area. He was director of the Hawkins Family Memorial Foundation of Educational Research and Development, which he founded in 1969 to give college scholarships to young women in his district.

Mr. Hawkins’ first wife, Pegga Adeline Smith, a concert singer, died in 1966. His second wife, Elsie, whom he married in 1977, died two months ago."

As reported in The Washington Post (11/14/07, p. B7), "Augustus F. ‘Gus’ Hawkins, 100, a California Democrat best known for advocating social welfare programs and anti-discrimination legislation during 14 terms in the House, died Nov. 10 at Suburban Hospital. He had pneumonia.

"Rep. Hawkins had a long and distinguished career in the California State Assembly – much of the time as its only black member – before winning election to national office in a South Central Los Angeles district that included the riot-torn Watts neighborhood.

"He served in the House from 1963 to 1991, and, in a style consistently described as subdued and pragmatic, he remained a standard-bearer of New Deal and Great Society programs aimed at helping the poor and disenfranchised.

"Toward the end of his career, he held the chairmanships of the House Education and Labor Committee and the Committee on House Administration. He also was a senior member of the Congressional Black Caucus, which he helped start in 1971.

"On Capitol Hill he was associated with many anti-discrimination bills affecting minorities and women. Early in his career, he backed efforts to strengthen the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. He also was a force behind the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978. The legislation required employers to cover pregnant workers in their disability and health insurance plans.

"He worked to raise the minimum wage and foster job creation. His most prominent legislation initiative was an act he sponsored with Sen. Hubert Humphrey (D-Minn.) to reduce unemployment and inflation.

"Rep. Hawkins said the measure, which passed in 1978, would bring full employment by 1980. But the federal jobs guarantee he hoped for was greatly watered down, including the elimination of the right to sue for a job. Furthermore, nothing in the legislation held the president or Congress liable for meeting its goals in employment or limiting inflation.

"Augustus Freeman Hawkins was born Aug. 31, 1907, in Shreveport, La., where his father was a pharmacist. He was raised in Los Angeles and worked as a gymnasium janitor to pay his tuition at the University of California at Los Angeles.

"He was active in campus politics and, after graduating in 1931, did further political science studies at the University of Southern California. Meanwhile, he campaigned in efforts to picket merchants who would not hire black people. He also spoke of an early political awakening stemming from his light skin, which confused streetcar drivers when he sat in the blacks-only section.

" ‘I got so angry with the whole thing and embarrassed that I would just walk’, he once said of the racism he faced on streetcars.

"His community profile grew through a successful real estate agency he started with his brother, and in 1934 he successfully challenged a black incumbent, a Republican, for a State Assembly seat. According to the Los Angeles Times, Rep. Hawkins owed his victory to a promise to halve the Los Angeles streetcar fare to a nickel.

"He earned a reputation as a soft-spoken but effective legislator during the next 28 years in Sacramento. He focused on measures affecting the poor, including slum clearance, workers compensation and disability insurance for farm laborers. He spent 14 years shepherding a fair employment act until its passage in 1959. That year, he narrowing lost a race for assembly speaker.

"He spoke of ambitions to address Medicare and low-cost housing on a national level and won a seat in the House in 1962 with support from President John F. Kennedy. Rep. Hawkins was one of five black members in the House at the time and the first elected black member from California.

"He allied himself with President Lyndon b. Johnson on legislation helping low-income families and received ample anti-poverty funding after the 1965 Watts riots devastated part of the district he represented. He also toured the South on fact-finding missions after three activists – later found dead – disappeared during a voter registration effort near Philadelphia, Miss. In the early 1970s, he defended busing as a way to desegregate school districts.

"Rep. Hawkins did not seek re-election in 1990 and was succeeded by Maxine Waters (D). He remained in Washington and was director of a family foundation he started to give college scholarships to women in his district.

"His first wife, Pegga Smith Hawkins, whom he married in 1945, died in 1966. His second wife, Elsie Jackson Taylor Hawkins, whom he married in 1977, died in June.

"Survivors include three step-children, Brenda L. Stevenson of Chevy Case, Barbara A. Hammond of Suitland and Michael A. Taylor of Reston; two granddaughters; and a great-granddaughter."

According to Roll Call (11/14/07, p. 3), "[I]n 1971, he helped create the CBC and was the dean of the caucus when he retired from Congress in 1990.

"Hawkins also co-wrote, with then-Sen. Hubert Humphrey (D-Minn.), the Humphrey-Hawkins Act of 1978, which was designed to reduce unemployment and inflation.

"In all, he authored more than 300 state and federal laws. He also succeeded in restoring honorable discharges to the 170 black soldiers of the 25thInfantry Regiment who had been falsely accused of a public disturbance in Brownsville Texas, in 1906, and removed from the Army.

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